Information from 2000 Missouri Rice Research Update, February 2001.

Nitrogen and Seeding Rates on Baldo Rice

Gene Stevens, Alan Sheckell, Keith Birmingham, and David Dunn

Abstract

An experiment at the Missouri Rice Farm in 1999 showed that the most effective management program for Baldo involved applying at least 35 lb N/acre pre-flood with a total of 80 to 100 lb of N/acre for the season. In 2000, experiments were performed to test the effects of seeding rates and nitrogen timing on lodging, rice milling, and yield. The most effective N management program used was a multiple application method with a rate of 100 lb/acre. The seeding rate had little effect on yields.

Introduction

Baldo rice has unique taste and cooking properties that are preferred by some consumers in Mediterranean and Mid-Eastern countries. In 1998, the Missouri Rice Council negotiated with mills in Turkey to sell Baldo rice grown in Missouri. Under this agreement, Missouri farmers exported a limited amount of Baldo in 1999 at a higher price than other varieties that are being grown in the state. However, since Baldo has a tendency to lodge, farmers have a greater risk producing this variety than the semi-dwarf varieties. Baldo is a very tall variety that will stand 3.5 to 4 feet tall. One idea by farmers to reduce lodging has been to reduce the amount of N application early in the season on Baldo to discourage early vegetative growth.

Materials and Methods

Nitrogen test. Baldo was drill seeded May 8, 2000. Nine different nitrogen programs were tested with four replications. Each application involved applying various amounts of N fertilizer at specific plant growth stages. Plots were harvested for yield and samples milled for grain properties.

Seeding rate. Baldo was drill seeded at four different seeding rates on May 1, 2000. Plants per square foot were measured at first tiller growth stage. Plots were harvested for yield and sampled for milling qualities.

Results

Nitrogen management rates did not have a great effect on Baldo yields or lodging in 2000. Results in Table 1 indicate that rice yields were not significantly different based on total N applied. In 2000, we experienced 100% lodging in every treatment. Milling percent increased 10% from 1999 to 2000. In the seeding test, lodging percentage and yield varied with the different seeding rates, as shown in Table 2.

Conclusion

Over a two year average the treatment that yielded the highest consisted of 40 lb N at preflood, 30 lb flood + 2 weeks, 20 lb at ½ inch IE, 10 lb at early boot, bringing the total N up to 100 lb N/acre. These results are similar to earlier research with other varieties. In many cases, rice can compensate for low plant populations if environmental conditions are favorable for good tiller production.

Table 1. Effects of nitrogen management on Baldo rice milling and yields.

Preflood Flood +
2
Weeks
½ -
inch
IE
Early
Boot
Total
Nitrogen
Milling % Yield Two
Year
Average
1999 2000 1999 2000
---------------lb N per acre--------------- Head Total Head Total ------bu per acre------
20 0 30 30 80 56 74 61 75 102112 107
5 15 25 35 80 51 74 63 76 103 123 113
35 25 15 5 80 50 74 62 75 108 113 110
40 0 30 30 100 52 75 64 74 110 111 110
10 20 30 40 100 54 75 62 74 98 99 99
40 30 20 10 100 56 75 62 76 106 130 118
60 0 30 30 120 53 74 63 74 105 110 108
15 25 35 45 120 52 74 63 74 101 129 115
45 35 25 15 120 51 74 62 74 103 109 106

Table 2. Grain yields, lodging % and milling quality results for early-planted Baldo
Seeding Rate (lb/a) Yield (bu/a) Lodging % Milling
60 53 50 75/66
90 55 50 73/65
120 73 40 75/64
150 62 45 71/62

This experiment funded by the Missouri Rice Research and Merchandising Council.

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