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Volume 17, Number 6 - June 2011

This Month in Ag Connection

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Branding Livestock in Missouri

Branding is one of the oldest and best ways to permanently identify livestock. It serves as an excellent safeguard against livestock theft, loss or dispute. In fact, the International Livestock Identification Association considers livestock brands to be as important as return addresses on mail.

Legislation passed in 1971 made the Missouri Department of Agriculture responsible for registering livestock brands. Brands must be recorded as required by Missouri's Marks and Brands of Animal Law to prove ownership and be considered legal evidence in a court of law. Each county Recorder of Deeds should have a brand book with all the brands listed. Currently there are about 5,000 brands recorded in Missouri.

All brands submitted will be checked before being registered to make sure the brand is available. The brand can be registered for use on the shoulder, rib or hip on either side of the animal. The left or right side is determined by viewing the animal from behind. Brands must be three (3) inches or larger in diameter.

In Missouri, it is a felony to brand someone else's animals, deface or obliterate any livestock brand. It also is illegal to use any brand for branding horses, cattle, sheep, mules or asses unless the brand has been recorded with the Department of Agriculture (this can be done through the County Recorder of Deeds office). For identification within the herd, livestock can be branded with unregistered Arabic numbers if they are used in conjunction with recorded brands. Brands used for identification within the herd are not considered proof of ownership.

Once brands are recorded with the Department of Agriculture they become the personal property of the owner. Following guidelines from Missouri Department of Agriculture allows for the transfer of brands from one individual to another.

In 1992, changes to the brand law made freeze-branding legal and gives it the same status as hot-iron branding. Freeze branding is considered less painful for animals and shows up well on dark-colored livestock.

For more information contact: Missouri Department of Agriculture or go to

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A New Stink Bug Coming to Missouri

The brown marmorated stink bug is expected to be identified in Missouri this year although it may already be here in very low numbers.

This exotic stink bug was first found in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 1998 and has steadily moved from its original location. As of 2010, this insect has been reported in 27 states including Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee. This insect is native to mainland China and was probably introduced into the U.S. in the early 90's in cargo from either China or Japan.

This insect is in the order Hemiptera (true bugs) and family Pentatomidae (shield shaped insects). Similar to other stink bugs, it inserts a long proboscis, beak or mouthpart into host plants to feed on plant juices.

Although it can be a pest of numerous fruit, vegetable, and major field crops (corn and soybeans); it can also be a major pest inside structures. It readily invades homes during the fall months to overwinter. One reason for this is the adults live up to three years. They need somewhere to spend the winter and unfortunately may choose our homes.

Once in the house, this stink bug will quickly release a very repulsive smell if disturbed. People who have experienced the foul odor say that it is often necessary to leave the room for several hours to allow the stench to disperse or fade to tolerable levels. Other than being a nuisance, they do not harm humans or livestock.

Several states report that the best method of eliminating this insect from houses is to suck them up with a vacuum and immediately change the vacuum bag or let them crawl onto a piece of paper and put them outside. The vacuum method may result in odor remaining in the vacuum after the bag has been removed. Most other methods of control in houses, including use of insecticides, apparently cause the insect to emit their defensive odor. Squashing this stink bug is not a recommended way to eliminate this insect.

Thoroughly sealing all cracks and crevices around windows doors, crawl spaces, and other possible entry points prior to fall will help keep them out of homes. Another method sometimes used in conjunction with sealing entry points is to have a certified pest control specialist spray the area around and on the structure with a synthetic pyrethroid in order to repel the adults as they search for overwintering sites.

The brown marmorated (marmorated is a medical term meaning marble like or marbled in appearance) stink bug can be confused with several other stink bugs. It is brown to brownish-gray on both the top and bottom. It is about ¾-inch in length and width. Two identifying characters are a white band near the end of the antennal and a row of alternating white and black markings around the edge of the abdomen. Nymphs (young) are red and black when newly hatched, but take on a more gray color as they grow. It is generally a darker brown than the brown stink bug commonly found in Missouri.

The University of Missouri wants to know if anyone believes they have brown marmorated stink bugs. Contact your local MU Extension Center to report suspicious stink bugs.

At present it is thought there is only one generation per year here unlike several Asian countries where multiple generations have been reported. The adult emerges in late May and June to feed on apples, cherries, peaches, pears, blackberries, green beans, lima beans, peppers, sweet corn, field corn, and soybean. Both adults and young can damage plants.

For more information:

Source: Jim Jarman, Agronomy Specialist

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Financial Tidbits: Form 1099 Reporting Requirements

Most businesses are required to issue and file 1099 MISC forms for certain types of payments made to others. The general rule is if your business pays an unincorporated entity $600 or more during the year for services or rents, those amounts should be reported on Form 1099 MISC. Provisions in last year's Health Care Bill and the Small Business Jobs Act were designed to significantly expand the depth and breadth of reporting requirements to also include goods purchased and for payments made to corporations. These provisions had the makings of compliance and reporting nightmare.

The intent behind these expanded reporting provisions was to help reduce the "tax gap" on income actually earned and the income reported for tax purposes. While the intent had merit, the strategy was just plain onerous.

Following a lot of tongue lashing and being flooded with letters from constituents, Congress has passed legislation repealing the 1099 reporting provisions in both the Health Care Bill and the Small Business Jobs Act. This new legislation is known as H.R. 4, the Repeal Bill, or the verbose version is the "Comprehensive 1099 Taxpayer Protection and Replacement of Exchange Subsidy Overpayment Act of 2011".

So for now, Form 1099 reporting is back to the same requirements we have been subject to for many years. However, there is still concern with the "tax gap" - so don't be surprised to see future legislation aimed at narrowing the gap. Just remember what goes in the front door of Congress is not always recognizable when it comes out of Congress.

Author: Parman R. Green, MU Extension Ag. Business Specialist

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Fly Control in Beef Cattle Herds

The following information is taken from the University of Kentucky guide Ent-11 "Insect Control on Beef Cattle - 2011" and was prepared by Dr. Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist at the University of Kentucky.

Insecticides have been placed into numbered Insecticide Groups (1 - 28) based on how they work against insects. Continual use of products from a single Group against a pest species (for example the house fly) can lead to reduced control of that species by all products in the Group. In order to minimize fly control failures due to insecticide resistance, do not apply insecticides within the same group repeatedly, even when using different application methods (baits, residual sprays, knockdown sprays, etc.). Rotate among groups during the fly season. For example with house flies, you can alternate between Group 1 and Group 3 for residual sprays and use a bait from Group 4.

Horn fly control can mean an additional 12 to 20 pounds of weight per calf over the summer months and reduced weight loss for nursing cows. Horn fly numbers can be kept below the target level of less than 100 fly per side (200 per head) by a variety of methods. Factors such as cost, convenience, physical layout, and animal movement between pastures should be considered when selecting a control program.

There is no clear information on the number of face flies per head that lead to economic loss. These flies are very annoying but even heavy infestations do not seem to reduce the rate of weight gain. While grazing during the day can be disrupted by these flies, animals will compensate by grazing at night. Face flies can spread pinkeye from animal to animal in the herd but outbreaks of this disease occur even when face fly numbers are low. Control measures should be increased if the incidence of pinkeye has been high.

Dust bags are most effective when used in forced-use situations where cattle have to pass under them daily to get to water or mineral. Hang bags where cattle will have daily access to them. Keep dust bags dry and charged. Do not use Ectiban or Permectrin if pyrethroid resistance is suspected or present. Co-Ral 1% D (coumaphos), Ectiban or Permectrin 0.25%D (permethrin), Methoxychlor 5% Dust, or Rabon 3% D (stirofos), or Python Dust Livestock Insecticide (0.15% z-cypermethrin) formulations are available for use in dust bags.

For back rubbers, use No. 2 diesel, No. 2 fuel oil, or label-recommended mineral oil to dilute concentrate. Do not use waste oil or motor oil. Use one gallon of oil solution per 20 ft of back-rubber. Do not use these dilutions as sprays. As with dust bags, these devices are most effective when placed in force-used areas such as mineral stations or entrances to watering sites. Rubbers are more effective against face flies if 18" strips of cloth are tied at four to six inch intervals along the length. Service the devices at least once per week and position in entryways to water or mineral feeders.

Feed additives target fly maggots breeding in fresh animal manure. Research results indicate that results can be very variable. All animals must eat a minimal dose of a feed additive regularly. Supplementary control measures must be taken to deal with flies moving in from nearby herds. The insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene is the active ingredient in Altosid Block, Tub, and Liquid products. The organophosphate Rabon (stirofos) is available as a 7.76% Premix.

For full article go to:

Submitted by : Gene Schmitz, MU Extension Livestock Specialist

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Barn & farmstead survey project and the Missouri Barn Alliance and Rural Network

Missouri currently ranks second in the nation for the number of farms with old barns, yet we have very little information about what types of barns were built.

The State Historic Preservation Office is in the process of collecting information about the historic barns and farmsteads that are still in existence within our state. For more information on completing an architectural survey form, visit the State Historical Preservation Office website and click on the Program Link for Architectural Survey. If you are interested in completing this form, please return it and the additional information to the address on the form. Certificates will be issued at no cost to participants in the program.

MO BARN Missouri Barn Alliance and Rural Network (Missouri BARN): Missouri BARN is a nonprofit organization recently developed in the state of Missouri focusing on identifying and preserving barns and other rural resources. If you are interested in finding out more about the organization, please contact Bill Hart at: (314) 691-1941 or by email at:

For other resources on Barn Preservation, check out the National Trust for Historic Preservation website

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Publishing Information

Ag Connection is published monthly for Central Missouri Region producers and is supported by University of Missouri Extension, the Commercial Agriculture program, the Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station and the MU College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources. Managing Editor: Kent Shannon.